The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe.
Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale) incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta (modern day Braga, Portugal).During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale.is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain.Despite attempts at independence since its foundation as a county in 868, only after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Afonso Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal.
He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.
maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republic, a strong rule of law, and the lowest levels of corruption in southern Europe.
Portugal ranks above the OECD average in mathematics, science, and reading, having been the country with the most expressive positive evolution throughout PISA's studies.
During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).
During this time, Portugal monopolized the spice trade, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia.
However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822), left Portugal crippled from war and diminished in its world power.